GlobalChrist crucified, symbolizes love and faith for the Christian.

Christ crucified, symbolizes love and faith for the Christian.

The representation of Jesus on the cross, crucified, has been one of the most recurrent themes in art, both in painting and sculpture.. And in its ability to make the image of divinity closer to the viewer, the image of the Crucified Christ is a good example. For this Holy Week we choose five famous crucified Christs, who live on the cross more than dead..

The suffering and death of Jesus Christ represent the central aspects of Christian theology, including the doctrines of salvation and atonement that it entails. Jesus of Nazareth was executed, crucified, in Judea between the years 30 and 33 AD. C. fact that is described both in the gospels and in non-Christian texts of the time.

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Most historians and New Testament specialists recognize the crucifixion of Jesus as a historical event attested by non-Christian sources and authors of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. C. that mention it. Where there is no consensus among historians would be the details. According to the New Testament, Jesus was arrested, tried by the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem and sentenced by the prefect Pontius Pilate to be scourged and, finally, crucified. These events are known as the “passion of Christ.”.

For most Bible scholars, lhe presence of an inscription condemning the Nazarene – present unanimously in the four canonical gospels – constitutes one of the most solid data on the historical character of the passion..

In the History of Western Art, the cycle of the Passion of Christ has a privileged place and astonishing richness. At the end of the Middle Ages, it became the main theme that later re-emerged with force starting with the Baroque..

Liturgy and dogma justify the preference of this topic. On the one hand, the sacrifice of Christ on the cross (redeeming Original sin and establishing the kingdom of Grace) and the Resurrection are the essential dogmas of Christianity..

“Christ Crucified” by Diego Velázquez. 1630. National Prado Museum.

1 CHRIST ON THE CROSS OF VELÁZQUEZ

At the beginning of 1630, shortly after Velázquez’s return from his trip to Italy, he painted The Crucifixion, a true masterpiece of religious imagery..

The Apollonian perfection of the anatomy and its clear pallor is reminiscent of Guido Reni, but Velázquez gives the figure a divine and sublime beauty, in accordance with the belief that Christ is the most beautiful of men, “the most beautiful of the sons of men” as described in one of the psalms of the Vulgate., 44/4.

The painting would be commissioned by Philip IV for the convent of San Plácido in Madrid, which he had founded. Christ is nailed to the cross with four nails, following the formula of Pacheco, his teacher and his father-in-law, who supported a battery of historical and religious arguments, as the writer of painting that he was. Furthermore, the titulus fixed above the head of Christ, instead of the traditional INRI, appears Nazaraenvus, instead of Nazarenvus with the same error as Pacheco.

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The presence of the wound, without blood on the side, indicates that he has died; but he remains elegantly upright on the cross, as if immersed in a sweet sleep, rather than dying a painful death..

It is the nude of a young body of perfect proportions, in which the absence of blood eliminates the sensation of drama typical of the baroque. The muscles at rest, the head fallen on the chest, the face partially hidden by the black hair and the closed eyes give the work a feeling of deep peace because more than a dead Christ, due to his serene presence he seems to be resting, meditating. ..that is at peace.

lThe beauty of this painting, the purity that radiates from its luminous and serene anatomy, has inspired poets and writers as the perfect image of the Crucified Christ. Miguel de Unamuno dedicated an extensive poem to him: “….White moon like the body of Man on a cross / mirror of the sun of life, of which never dies….”.

THE CHRIST ON THE CROSS BY BERNINI

Almost life-size, Christ on the cross by Bernini, only the bronze body measures 140 cm., it is called “academic”, it is held with three nails, the head is inclined on the right shoulder and with a tiny crown of thorns with a placid, delicate expression.

The small crown of thorns next to a beautiful head, which is gently tilted, presents hair and beard styled with virtuosity as is usual for Bernini.

It was commissioned by King Philip IV through his ambassador in Rome, from the most famous Italian sculptor, Bernini around 1654-1657, the only work that Bernini carried out for a foreign commission, and he did it for Spain, a work destined to preside over the tomb of the king in the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

$!'Christ on the Cross' by Spanish painter Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1780).

‘Christ on the Cross’ by Spanish painter Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1780).

It presents the expression of a serene face, and in that model of avoiding the symptoms of the pain of martyrdom, the traces of all brutality are erased. She presents her mouth half-open and her eyes half-closed, with a gesture also of being at peace, already in another world, with her body gently modeled. The purity cloth (perizonium) or knotted in the center with that flight and baroque grace. Again, the idea of ​​a crucified Jesus, who never dies, that is why in his nakedness his skin appears smooth and his muscles tense, because Jesus lives on the cross..

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GOYA’S CHRIST

Goya’s Christ continues the pious tradition of Spanish baroque painting but also reworked here according to the concept of ideal beauty and harmony spread in Spain by Rafael Mengs and Francisco Bayeor. Like Veláquez and Bernini, Goya banishes the bloodiest and most dramatic tone of the matter, and in the face of the pain of martyrdom, he highlights the beauty of the surprising relaxed naked body. Only the look towards the sky asking for mercy, with his mouth half open reminds us that he is human. With this delicate work, the Aragonese achieved the rank of academic of merit in Fine Arts at the Royal Academy of San Fernando in 1780 and it was sent to the church of the convent of San Francisco el Grande in Madrid.

CHRIST OF SAINT JOHN OF THE CROSS BY DALÍ

One night, while in prayer, Saint John had a mystical experience. What he sees impacts him so much that he immediately begins to draw what was revealed to him in his appearance. It was the image of Christ crucified.

$!One of Salvador Dalí's most iconic paintings, 'The Christ', an oil on canvas from 1951. Dalí Museum in Figueres, Girona.

One of Salvador Dalí’s most iconic paintings, ‘The Christ’, an oil on canvas from 1951. Dalí Museum in Figueres, Girona.

Centuries later, when the Catalan painter, Salvador Dalí was going through his mystical stage, he came across that drawing and was so shocked that he also had his own ecstasy. His vision captures Christ without the attributes of the crucifixion, without wounds, without nails, without pain. In that dream image, only the metaphysical beauty of the Christ-Savior appeared.

This is how Dalí in 1951 approached his own version of Christ Crucified. In it, on a black background, Jesus appears without the attributes of the passion (no crown, no wound, no blood). Without a doubt, what is most striking is the spectacular point of view, from top to bottom. The imposing verticality in the foreshortening of the cross reinforces the proximity of the figure that seems to almost come out of the canvas in the upper part. The head tilted downwards, hiding the face and dispensing with the Nazarene’s mane.

$!Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubicus (1951) by Spanish painter Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) Philadelphia Museum of Art.

“Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubicus” (1951) by Spanish painter Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) Philadelphia Museum of Art.

In the lower part of the painting you can see a landscape of his beloved Port Lligat with two fishermen and a boat. It is illuminated by the light radiating from the cross and crossing the dark sky, separating Christ from the earthly landscape. Dalí uses the technique of handmade photography or “photorealism.” With a brushstroke so fine that it is barely visible, which allows the smallest details to be reproduced. His intention is to express the beauty of Christ rather than his suffering.

Dalí made another Christ on the cross after returning from New York in 1953, and announced as he often did, with great fanfare, that he would create a “Explosive, nuclear and hypercubic Christ”. Crucifixion Hypercubic Body, found in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, was defined by the artist as “metaphysical transcendental cubism.”

The Crucifixion is an astonishing work that combines the “nuclear mysticism” that Dalí was interested in at the time with his Catholic heritage. In it he represents a crucifixion in the era of modern science, completing his theme, initiated in the painting “Christ of Saint John of the Cross”.

The amazingly athletic Christ figure of the crucified Christ. No nails on the palms and feet. Dalí presents the perfect atonement for him. The cross itself, an octahedral cube, is a possible theoretical reflection of a separate four-dimensional world. Dalí’s passion for mathematics is associated with his return to the Catholic faith, demonstrating that two seemingly opposite worlds of faith and science can coexist.

By Amalia González Manjavacas EFE/Reports.

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